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American Pliilosopl^;^!^^!^ c§pciety












The Problem of Adaptation as Illustrated by the Fur Seals of the Pribilof Islands. By George H. Parker i

The Large Fruited American Oaks. By William Trelease. . 7

The Swedes, Governor Printz and the Beginning of Pennsyl- vania. By Thomas Willing Balch 12

General Results of the Work in Atmospheric Electricity Aboard the Carnegie, 1909-1914. By L. A. Bauer 14

The Rights and Duties of Neutralized Territory. By Charle- magne Tower 18

The Pronouns and Verbs of Sumerian. By J. Dyneley Prince 27

The Hall and Corbino Effects. By E. P. Adams 47

Some Results from the Observation of Eclipsing Variables. By Raymond S. Dugan 52

Some Present Needs in Systematic Botany. By L. H. Bailey. 58

The Variable Stars, TF, TW, TX Cassiopeise and T Leonis Minoris. By R. J. McDiarmid 66

An Interpretation of SteriHty in Certain Plants. By E. M. East 70

Additions to the Fauna of the Lower Pliocene Snake Creek Beds (Results of the Princeton University 1914 Expedition to Nebraska). By William J. Sinclair 73

Explorations Over the Vibrating Surfaces of Telephonic Diaphragms Under Simple Impressed Tones. By A. E. Kennelly and H. O. Taylor 96

The Ruling and Performance of a Ten Inch Diffraction Grat- ing. By A. A. Michelson 137

The Constitution of the Hereditary Material. By T. H. Morgan 143

Spontaneous Generation of Heat in Recently Hardened Steel. By Charles F. Brush 154

Relationships of the White Oaks of Eastern North America. With an Introductory Sketch of their Phylogenetic History. By Margaret V. Cobb 165

A New Form of Nephelometer. By J. T. W. Marshall and H. W. Banks, 30 176



The Role of the Glacial Anticyclone in the Air Circulation of

the Globe. By William Herbert Hobbs 185

The Test of a Pure Species of CEnothera. By Bradley Moore

Davis 226

Concretions in Streams Formed by the Agency of Blue Green Algae and Related Plants. By H. Justin Roddy, M.S.,

Ph.D 246

The Conditions of Black Shale Deposition as Illustrated by the Kupferschiefer and Lias of Germany. By Charles

ScHucHERT 259

On the Rate of Evaporation of Ether from Oils and its Applica- tion in Oil-ether Colonic Anesthesia. By Charles Basker-

ville, Ph.D., F.C.S 270

Symposium on the Earth : Its Figure, Dimensions and the Constitution of its Interior : I. The Interior of the Earth from the Viewpoint of Geol- ogy- By T. C. Chamberlin 279

II. Constitution of the Interior of the Earth as Indicated by Seismological Investigations. By Harry Field- ing Reid 290

HI. The Earth from the Geophysical Standpoint. By

John F. Hayford 298

IV. Variations of Latitude : Their Bearing upon our Knowl- edge of the Interior of the Earth. By Frank

Schlesinger 351

Morphology and Development of Agaricus rodmani. By Geo.

F. Atkinson 309

The Euler-Laplace Theorem on the Decrease of the Eccen- tricity of the Orbits of the Heavenly Bodies under the Secular

Action of a Resisting Medium. By T. J. J. See 344

A Practical Rational Alphabet. By Benjamin Smith Lyman 359 The Cambrian Manganese Deposits of Conception and Trinity

Bays, Newfoundland. By Nelson C. Dale 371

Obituary Notice of Members Deceased iii-xii

Minutes iii-xv



American Philosophical Society



Vol. Llil. January— April, 1915. No. 216.


The Problem of Adaptation as Illustrated by the Fur Seals of the Pribilof Islands. By George H. Parker - - - - i

The Large Fruited American Oaks. By William Trelease - 7 The Swedes, Governor Printz and the Beginning of Pennsylva- nia. By Thomas Willing Balch - - - - - - 12

General Results of the Work in Atmospheric Electricity Aboard the Carnegie, 1 909-1 9 14. By L. A. Bauer - - - -14

The Rights and Duties of Neutralized Territory. By Charle- magne Tower - - - 18

The Pronouns and Verbs of Sumerian. By J. Dyneley Prince 2'] The Hall and Corbino Effects. By E. P. Adams - - - 47 Some Results from the Observation of Eclipsing Variables. By Raymond S. Dugan - - - -- - - -52

Some Present Needs in Systematic Botany. By L. H. Bailey 58 The Variable Stars TV, TW, TX Cassiopeiae and TLeonis Minoris. By R. J. McDiarmid - _ _ _ _ . . .66

An Interpretation of Sterility in Certain Plants. By E. M. East 70

Minutes - - - - - - i

Obituary Notices of Members Deceased - - - - - i



104 South Fifth Street


Members who have not as yet sent their photographs to the Society will confer a favor by so doing ; cabinet size preferred.

It is requested that all correspondence be addressed To THE Secretaries of the


Philadelphia, U S. A.


JUN 28 1915





Vol. LIV January-April, 1915 No. 216



{Read April 23, 191 5.)

The breeding habits of the Alaskan fur seals are so unusual as to make these animals unique among mammals. During much of the year, these seals are strictly pelagic roaming over the eastern expanse of the northern Pacific as far southward as the latitude of southern California. As summer approaches, practically the whole herd consisting of several hundreds of thousands of individuals re- pairs to the two small islands of St. George and St. Paul in Bering 'Sea for the breeding season. It is the relative proportions of the various constituents of the herd during this breeding period that affords material for interesting speculation.

The movements of the fur seals in their arrival and departure from the Pribilof Islands take place with much regularity. Early in May and June the mature males or bulls, having made their way through the passes of the Aleutians, reach the breeding beaches or rookeries on the islands of St. George and St. Paul. Here they take their positions, fighting all intruders while they await the com- ing of the females or cows. The cows arrive on the islands chiefly during June and July. They associate themselves with particular bulls and the bull with his group of cows constitutes the family unit or harem. In 1914 the average harem was not far from one bull




to sixty cows, and the range extended from harems containing one cow to some that contained over a hundred. Because of the many- years of commercial kilHng, chiefly directed against the males, it is impossible to state what the size of the normal average harem should be, but probably not far from one bull to thirty or forty cows.

Within a short time after the arrival of the cow, in the harem, i. e., within a few days or a week or so, she gives birth to a single young or pup. So far as is known, cows do not produce more than one pup at a time. Shortly after the birth of her pup, the cow goes into heat, pairs with the bull, and becomes pregnant again. As these are annual occurrences, the period of gestation in the fur seal must be a few days less than a year. The pups are born males and females in about equal numbers. The counts of former years, as well as those of 1914, show a slight predominance of males, the excess being from a little over two per cent, to about seven per cent, of the total births.

The breeding season closes toward the end of July or early in August and this close is marked by the disintegration of the harems. During August most of the bulls begin their migrations back to the Pacific, and the pups, which heretofore have remained on the beaches, begin to take to the sea. They and the cows stay about the islands till November, when they too start on their migration to the open ocean. The only important constituent of the herd that has not yet been mentioned is the class known as the bachelors, i. e., the young males that have not yet attained to breeding. The bache- lors move with the cows, arriving for the most part in June and July, and departing in November, though some are found on the islands in December or even later. The bachelors do not mingle on the beaches with the rest of the herd, but gather to one side of the breeding grounds proper in the so-called bachelors hauling grounds, where they lead an idle rollicking existence suggested by their name.

The maximum age of the fur seal is believed to be about twelve to fourteen years for both males and females. In the migration, the males return to the islands approximately in the sequence of their ages ; the old bulls arrive first in May and June followed by the younger bulls and bachelors and lastly by the yearling males, which arrive in the latter part of July and in August. The year-


ling males on arrival associate with the pups and cows rather than with the other bachelors. The bachelors may begin breeding at five years of age or even four, but they do not normally undertake this function until they are six or seven years old, when they desert the bachelors' hauling grounds for the breeding rookeries. The period of their normal breeding life covers, therefore, a term of perhaps some seven years or more.

It is not impossible that the yearling females do not return to the islands or, if they do, it is probable that they do so only in small numbers and late in the season. The two-year-old females return to the islands in July and August as virgin females, pair with the younger bulls, and reappear a year later, the end of their third year, with tEeir first pup. From that time on they enter into the regular breeding of the herd and continue in all probability to produce one pup annually. Their breeding life, therefore, extends over some ten or more years.

These in brief are the main facts concerning the breeding habits of the Alaskan fur seal, an animal that exhibits one of the most re- markable examples of concentrated and localized breeding known. When it is recalled that these seals range over thousands of miles in the northern Pacific and that all sexually active members of the species without exception congregate in the appropriate season on the two small islands of St. George and St. Paul for breeding, the very exceptional nature of their reproductive activities must be evident.

The proportion of the two sexes at birth is very nearly equal, yet when the breeding age has been reached, the natural relations are not far from one male to thirty or forty females. As there is no reason to suppose that the death rate is higher in males than in females and as the length of the breeding life of the two sexes is not very different, about seven years for the bulls and about ten for the cows, it follows from the sexual proportions already mentioned, that we should expect an excess of bulls to be present. As a matter of fact, such is the case, for even in 1914, after the excessive com- mercial killing of males in the past, the so-called idle bulls were much in evidence. It thus appears that the Alaskan fur seal pro- duces at birth approximately equal numbers of males and females


and yet in its breeding activities needs only relatively few males, a condition which when viewed as a whole seems to be a misadjust- ment rather than a close adaptation to the actual needs of the species. The measure of this misadjustment would be the proportion of idle bulls naturally present. Unfortunately, the commercial activities of the past in exploiting the herd for its fur prevent the possibility of accurate statement on this point, but the presence of idle bulls in the herd today is enough to show that this class under natural conditions would be abundantly represented.

The fur seal, however, is not the only one of the higher animals to show this misadjustment in the ratio of males to females. A prosaic example of the same kind is seen in the barn-yard fowl. Here the sexes hatch in nearly equal numbers, there being perhaps a slight predominance of females, but in maturity the cock holds sway over a flock of hens. This condition is almost exactly parallel with that of the fur seal except that it occurs under domestication. Nevertheless it has probably been inherited from the wild stock, for Finn states that though the red jungle fowl will live quite happily with a single hen, this is not universal and harems are often found. The bull of the American elk or wapiti, as my friend Dr. J. C. Phillips tells me, also forms, during the breeding season, a harem of cows from which he will drive away other bulls of his own kind, much as the fur seals do. Dr. Phillips further informs me that there are among the higher vertebrates many other instance of that particular form of polygamy in which one male during the breeding season naturally associates with many females. Such examples are found among some of the larger antelopes, wild sheep, and wild goats, and among certain birds such as the black grouse, capercaillie, and wild turkey. Although in these several species, the propor- tions of sexes at birth, so far as I am aware, are not definitely known, they probably follow the rule of approximate equality so common among many of the other higher animals and thus in reality illustrate much the same condition as that seen in the Alaskan fur seal.

Among the lower animals, particularly the insects, exceptional ratios in the sexes have long been known, the classic example of the honey bee being the most commonly quoted. Here a few


males, the drones, are set off against one perfect female, the queen, and a host of imperfect ones, the workers. These cases differ from those in the higher animals, however, in that the sex ratios appro- priate for the breeding colony are determined from the beginning, i. e., the young are not produced males and females in equal num- bers. Such cases as the honey bee and other like insects exhibit, therefore, in their sex ratios much more accurate adjustments to their breeding requirements than do the higher animals ; in fact they may be said to show a very high order of intracolonial sex adap- tation.

Throughout the animal kingdom as a whole sexual reproduction seems to be best adjusted where the sexes are represented in ap- proximately equal numbers and this relation is probably determined by the production of equal numbers of male-determining and female- determining sexual elements. The sperm cells of most species of animals, perhaps of all, are apparently the prime factors in this de- termination, and the dimorphism of these cells in the sense that one class is made up of male-determiners and the other of female-de- terminers as well as the production of these two classes in equal numbers may be looked upon as the chief adaptation of the animal kingdom so far as sex ratios are concerned. But the reproductive activities of a limited number of animals, such as the honey bee and the fur seal, have developed in directions in which equal numbers of the two sexes serve no longer as an advantageous combination. To meet these new conditions, further adaptation would be needed and, from what has been said, this adaptation would involve read- justments in the powers of the sex-determining reproductive cells. Such readjustments seem to have been carried out in the insects as seen in the honey bee, etc., where through the development of nat- ural parthenogenesis the usual sex ratio has been entirely set aside and a new one favorable to the new requirements has been estab- lished. This has not been accomplished by the fur seals and other higher animals which in this respect remain poorly adapted to their new relations. From this standpoint, then, such lower animals as the insects show a higher order of adaptation than either the mammals or the birds. An explanation of this paradox may be found in the fact that the rate at which generation follows generation in in-


sects is enormous compared with that in the higher animals and further that geologically speaking the insects are much older than the mammals or birds. Hence they have had a much greater op- portunity to adapt themselves to their conditions than has fallen to the lot of the higher animals. If the maladjustments of the sex ratios as exhibited by the fur seals and other higher animals are to be interpreted in the way indicated, it is clear that the evolutionary processes by which adaptation is brought about must often be slow and imperfect with the result that adaptation itself is better de- scribed, in the words of Bateson, as a poor fit than in the extravagant terms of eulogy with which many of the older writers clothed it.

Harvard University, April 23, 1915.



Plates I-III.

{Read April 23, 1915.)

When Alphonse de Candolle monographed the oaks of the world something over a generation ago/ he distinguished with a varietal name a form of our common white oak with small acorns some 8 X 14 mm., which Engelmann had sent him the usual fruit of Quercus alba measuring about 14 X 18 mm. Those who have examined numerous specimens of our common red oak, Q. rubra, and its double, Q. Schneckii, have noted that they occur in forms varying in diameter of the acorn from about 10 to about 20 mm. The assemblage of forms clustering about the Calif ornian Q. chry- solepis, the oldest of our existing types of oak, geologically, also show a comparable or even greater difference in the size of the fruit of what are otherwise held to be mere variants of a single species ; and the polymorphic Q. dumosa presents a similar if less extended range of fruit size.^

The most surprising of our species in this respect is the bur oak^ which joins to its great range in size a difference in fruit which is even more startling; for while the usual diameter of the acorns of this species is somewhere about 25 mm., and of the cup five or ten millimeters more, the acorns frequently measure 40 mm. in diameter with a cup fully 50 mm. across on the one hand, while on the other hand they may scarcely reach a diameter of 10 mm. Perhaps no oak presents so great a range of cup characters as this species does.^ While the round or ovoid scaly-fringed form covering the acorn nearly or quite to its top is taken as the most typical and has given to the tree its common name of mossy or overcup oak, it is not un-

1 Quercus alba microcarpa A. de Candolle, Prodromus, 162 22. 1864.

2 On these consult Sargent, Silva, vol. 8.



common to find a broad saucer-shape assumed with the fringe of slender scales either seemingly absent, because closely inflexed beside the acorn, or extended in its development over a considerable part of the outside of the cup ; and it is even possible, as Professor Pieters has recently shown me by material collected about Ann Arbor, for the cup of the smaller type of fruit to be shallow and thin as in the post oak, and either delicately ciliate at top or entirely without a fringe even on a single tree.

Even the largest acorns produced by these or our other familiar oaks seem small when compared with those of some tropical species of Quercus, or of the related genus Pasania. On our own conti- nent, where the true oaks extend from the far north into the high Andes of Colombia, these large-fruited species are of both the red and white-oak groups,— the former in Guatemala and Chiapas, and the latter in the last-named state of Mexico and along the flanks of the eastern Sierre Madre range above Vera Cruz. In contrast with these, which may reach a diameter of 50 or even 60 mm., the smallest acorns, also Guatemalan and Mexican, and of the group of red oaks, scarcely measure 5 mm. in diameter.^

Some two years ago, while looking over a series of type photo- graphs that I had made in the course of a systematic revision of the oaks of tropical America, Mr. Walter Swingle, of the National Department of Agriculture, expressed considerable interest in some of the east-Mexican large-fruited white oaks as affording a hope- ful field for experimentation both in direct propagation and hybrid- ization, with reference to our own tropical and subtropical regions, and Mr. David Fairchild, of the same government department, con- sidered the matter of sufficient interest to undertake importations through the interest of Dr. C. A. Purpus, whose collections in the southern republic have done much of recent years to make its vegetable wealth known. The purpose of the present communica-

3 Quercus parviglans n. nom. Q. niicrocarpa Liebmann, Overs. Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Forhandl. 1854 : 184. Liebmann-Oersted, Chenes Amer. Trop. 26. pi. 6. Not Q. niicrocarpa Lapeyrouse, Hist. Abr. PI. Pyren. 582. 1813. Equally small are the racemed acorns of an as yet unpublished group of west- and south-Mexican species of the red oaks; and the east-Mexican white oak, Q. glahrescens, possesses an equally small-fruited variety.


tion is to give a connected account of these large- fruited species, because of this popular interest that they possess.

The first of the large-fruited tropical American species to be made known is Quercus Skiuneri* collected by Hartweg at Quezalte- nango, Guatemala, which Bentham noted and illustrated in 1841 and described the following year. Skinner's oak is a large tree with long-petioled, ovate, acute, rather blunt-based aristately toothed glabrous leaves about 5X9 cm., producing solitary or paired short- stalked fruit resembling that of our common red oak but on a much larger scale, the shallow cup 50 mm. in diameter and the short- ovoid acorn of about that length. It is a red oak with the usual characters of apical abortive ovules and tomentose interior of the shell, but the latter is thicker than usual and with the septa intruded into the kernel so as to make the latter somewhat three-lobed. Of recent years Q. Skinneri has been collected only by Cook and Griggs, at the Finca Sepacuite, Guatemala. A similar, if not the same, red oak, but with larger duller winter buds and lance-elliptical leaves as much as 20 cm. long, was collected at Chinantla, in the Mexican State of Oaxaca, by Liebmann in the fall of 1842, but of it nothing else is known : as with Furcrcsa longceva, the species seems to range extensively through the Cordillera.

Closely related to Skinner's oak is a species recently collected by Dr. Purpus in the Mexican state of Chiapas, the similar acorns of which may reach a diameter of over 35 mm., their very shallow cups, with thickened scales, sometimes measuring 45 mm. across. This, which differs markedly from Quercus Skinneri in having acutely lanceolate very short-stalked leaves about 5 X 12 cm., may be called Q. chiapasensis.^ Like the other oaks here under consideration, it appears to become a tree of very large size.

The year following the full description of Quercus Skinneri, the Belgian botanists Martens and Galeotti described under the name

* Quercus Skinneri Bentham, Gard. Chron. 1841 : 16. /. ; PI. Hartweg. 90. 1842. Hooker, Icones Plant. 5. pi. 402. Liebmann-Oersted, /. c. pi. B, 3.

° Quercus chiapasensis n. sp. Arbor grandis : foliis brevipetiolatis, acutis, lanceolatis, aristato-dentatis ; f ructu magna ; cupula plana, glabra, crassa ; glande semiglobosa, 35 mm. diametro. Q. Skinneri affinis.


Q. insignis^ what must be regarded as most notable in its genus be- cause of the enormous height of the trees and the production of acorns occasionally fully 60 mm. in diameter and thus out of com- parison with those of any black oaks and even with those of such Asiatic Pasanias as P. cornea. Quercus insignis, which occurs along the upper flanks of Mount Orizaba in eastern Mexico, is a white-oak, with the interior of the acorn shell not woolly, and with deeply lateral ovules. Its short-petioled elliptical-oblanceolate more or less acuminate leaves are sharply low-serrate but without bristle-like tips to the teeth, and measure 5 X 10 cm. or more. The fruit, which matures the first season, as seems to be true of all white oaks, is typically biscuit-shaped and about one- fourth shorter than thick, and the rather shallow cup, which may reach 80 mm. in diameter, is covered with coarse heavy loosely ascending scales.

Martens and Galeotti do not appear to have seen more than one form in the oaks of this kind ; but the type collection of Galeotti as represented in the museum at Budapest contains acorns of two sorts, one depressed, and the other acuminately conical and about as long as thick. At about the same time that Galeotti's col- lections were made, the Danish botanist Liebmann collected in the same general region materials of an oak similar to Q. insignis but dififering in bearing subconical acorns about as long as broad and with more turbinate cups. This was published by its discoverer in 1854 under the name Q. strombocarpaJ Subsequently when a series of exquisite drawings of Mexican oaks prepared under Lieb- mann's direction were published by Oersted, the latter added a plate of a very similar form, which he called Q. insignis stromho- carpoides.^ It is hard to see how the latter can be distinguished from Q. strombocarpa, and the Galeotti collection shows that, dif- ferent as the fruit extremes are, the discoverer of Q. insignis did not separate from its typical form the conical- fruited form to which apparently both of the later names refer.

6 Quercus insignis Martens and Galeotti, Bull. Acad. Brux. lo^ : 219. 1843. Liebmann-Oersted, I. c. pi. K, 29.

'' Quercus strombocarpa Liebmann, Overs. Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. For- handl. 1854 : 176. Liebmann-Oersted, /. c. 24. pi. 27. Oersted, Bidrag Kundsk. Egefamilien. 346. /. E.

s Q. insignis strombocarpoides Liebmann-Oersted, /. c. pi. 28.


Wishing materials that should throw light on this question, I turned in 1912 to my amiable correspondent, Dr. Purpus, who was then in eastern Mexico : but before my letter reached him. Dr. Purpus had gone into southern Mexico. The result of my appeal, therefore, was not further specimens of Quercus insignis, but col- lections of an equally large and almost equally large-fruited white oak which appears to be characteristic of the Chiapas region. With somewhat similar but more deeply toothed leaves about 7 X 20 cm., equally short-petioled, this combines a stoutly stalked turbinate cup as much as 60 mm. in diameter, the scales of which are barely if at all free at tip with their bases connate in zones ; and the ovoid pointed acorn measures 40-50 X 50-60 mm. Though closely related to Q. insignis, this species is so distinct in its collective char- acters as to stand as the type of a separable group of white oaks, and it has been called Q. cyclobalanoides^ because of its very peculiar cup-markings.


(All figures are of natural size.) Plate I.

Quercus macrocarpa. Above, three acorns from a very small-fruited Michigan tree (Pieters), partly with and partly without fringe to the cup, and a single fruit of the largest and "mossiest" type from Illinois (Adams). Below, two of the more typical acorns of different cup-depth, and a cup showing a not infrequent inrolling of the inner scales, also from Illinois (Adams).

Plate II.

Above, two cups and three acorns of the large-fruited Mexican red oak, Quercus chiapasensis (Purpus). Below, basal and side view of two acorns of the large-fruited Chinese oak, Pasania cornea (after pho- tographs by Fairchild).

Plate III.

Above, two fruits of the Mexican ring-scaled white oak, Quercus cyclo- balanoides (Chiapas, Purpus). Below, a fruit of the great-acorned Mexican Tvhite oak, Quercus insignis (Huatusco, Purpus).

The University of Illinois, March 8, 1915.

9 Quercus cyclobalanoides n. sp. Arbor grandis ; foliis brevipetiolatis, acutis, oblanceolatis, mucronato-dentatis : fructu magna; cupula turbinata, luteo-tomentosa, pluriannulata; glande ellipsoidea, sub 50 mm. diametro. Quercus Insignes valde affinis, sed sectio distincta, Cyclobalanoidese, constitu- ens. Q. insignis Journal of Heredity, 5 : 407. /. 12. 1914— not Martens and Galleotti, /. c.


By THOMAS WILLING BALCH. (Read March 5, 191 5-)

Of the original thirteen States, those south of the Middle States as well as those known under the collective name of New England, were settled by men and women of English race. New York, New Jersey and Delaware were first settled by Hollanders. The whole area of the Dutch settlements was known as New Netherland, and the chief city of the Hollanders in the new world was called Am- sterdam in New Netherland, though historians afterwards thought fit to change the name into New Amsterdam,^ doubtless because the English had renamed the town New York. The settlements in the valley of the Hudson and in what is now New Jersey passed by conquest into the hands of the English. The Dutch settlement in Delaware was destroyed after six months by the Indians. Sub- sequently, the Swedes took over the inchoate title of the Dutch to present-day Delaware. The Swedes later lost Delaware to the Dutch by conquest, who in their turn were afterwards conquered by the English.

No European Power, however, occupied and took possession of what today constitutes the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, until Lieutenant-Colonel John Printz, .who was the fourth Governor of New Sweden, moved up from Delaware to Great Tinicum Island and there established, in 1643, his seat of government, the first capital placed in the territory of the present State of Pennsylvania. He thereby became the first governor of the territory now known as Pennsylvania.

That Sweden was the first European nation to possess itself of what is present-day Pennsylvania was supported by the International

1 1 have to thank Mr. Robert H. Kelby, the learned librarian of the New York Historical Society, for this information.



Law of the seventeenth century. Towards the end of the sixteenth century there grew up as a rule of international law that, in order that a member of the family of nations could claim as its own a newly discovered and virgin land, it was necessary for that nation to actually occupy and possess that virgin land. The act of merely discovering and christening such an unoccupied land did not give the right of possession. The act of possession must be an actual occupancy through the establishment of forts and settlements in that land. Queen Elizabeth enunciated this principle clearly in 1580 in a notable answer she made at her court to the Spanish Am- bassador, Mendoza.- It was thus recognized by England through the lips of her sovereign, a sovereign who well knew how to main- tain the dignity and interests of her realm abroad. That rule be- came more and more recognized both by the publicists in their writings and by the nations in their acts, and has remained a rule of international law until the present day.

The sovereignty of Sweden over the land now known as Penn- sylvania passed later by conquest to the States General of the United Netherlands, and subsequently again by conquest to the British crown, by whom it was afterwards granted to William Penn.

The fact that the sovereignty of Pennsylvania, alone of the orig- inal thirteen, goes back to Sweden for its beginning and that Printz was the first in the line of its governors, is known to only a very few. It would seem well then, that proper monuments to Printz and his Swedish settlement should be erected, so that future generations may know of the beginning of this province and state. And no place would seem more appropriate than the ancient hall of this venerable society of learning, the oldest existing society of learning not only within the bounds of Pennsylvania but also in all of the new world as well, to suggest that, first a bronze tablet should be erected in memory of Governor Printz and his capital called Nya Goteborg on Great Tinicum Island ; and second, a bronze statue of Governor Printz, either of life or heroic size, should be placed at some conspicuous place in the city of Philadelphia.

2 Camden's "Annals," 1580; see translation in Sir Travers Twiss's "' Oregon Question."


By L. a. BAUER. {Read April 24, 191 5.)

Notable progress, it is believed, has been achieved by the de- partment of terrestrial magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of Washington during the past year in the perfection of the instru- mental appliances for observations in atmospheric electricity. In various articles by Drs. Swann and Hewlett, which have appeared in the Journal of Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Elec- tricity, 1913-1914, new points of theory were brought out, serious errors in certain instruments were made known, and improved methods and instruments were devised. As a result considerable improvement has been made in the work in atmospheric electricity aboard the Carnegie, especially on her present cruise.

It is now deemed worth while to expand the work of the depart- ment in atmospheric electricity in two directions: (a) Continuous observations, by self-recording means, at the department's labora- tory in Washington and at such observatories elsewhere as the de- partment may be able to establish in the near future, {h) A gen- eral electric survey of the globe, implying observations at points distributed over the earth's surface, somewhat as in a magnetic survey.

Probably the late Professor Rowland was one of the first, in his address before the Congress of Electricians, held at Paris, Septem- ber, 1881, to point out the need in atmospheric electricity "of a series of general and accurate experiments performed simultaneously on a portion of the earth's surface as extended as possible."^ He says that " the principal aim of scientific investigation is to be able to understand more completely the laws of nature, and we generally succeed in doing this by bringing together observation and theory."

1 Physical Papers of Henry A. Rowland, Baltimore, 1902, p. 212 et seq.



On Professor Rowland's motion the Congress resolved " that an international commission be charged with determining the precise methods of observation for atmospheric electricity, in order to gen- eralize this study on the surface of the globe."

Unfortunately, in the past, the observations in atmospheric elec- tricity have often been found to be counterfeits of nature because of the errors inherent in the instruments and methods used. Ac- cordingly the much-desired discovery of nature's laws by "bringing together observation and theory " has not been efifected in the measure desired. None of the proposals for a general electric sur- vey of the earth which have been made repeatedly to learned acad- emies, one of the last having been presented to the International Association of Academies, has been put into effect, doubtless be- cause of the discouraging experiences encountered.

In spite of the vast work already done by notable investigators, we still have no generally accepted theory of the origin of atmos- pheric electricity.

Probably one of the most important of recent contributions to the observational data is the series of observations obtained on the past cruises of the Galilee and the Carnegie. A report giving the results up to the end of 1913, obtained by the department observers and others, was prepared by Dr. Hewlett and published in the Sep- tember, 1914, issue of Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity. The observations comprised, in addition to the usual meteorological measurements, those of the potential gradient, at- mospheric conductivity and radioactive content of the atmosphere. Perhaps the most important result was a confirmation of the some- what striking phenomenon, that while the conductivity over the ocean is, on the average, at least as great as over land, the radio- active content is much smaller. The values of the potential gra- dient obtained at sea were of the same order of magnitude as those on land.

Dr. Swann has just completed a report on the atmospheric- electric observations taken during the third cruise of the Carnegie while under the command of Mr. J. T. Ault, in 1914. The general course of the Carnegie during this cruise was as follows : Leaving Brooklyn on June 8, 1914, she arrived at Hammerfest on July 3.


Sailing again from Hammerfest on July 25 she entered the harbor of Reykjavik, Iceland, on August 24, having reached the latitude of 79° 52' North, off the northwest coast of Spitzbergen. Leaving Reykjavik on September 15, the Carnegie arrived at Greenport, Long Island, on October 12, returning to Brooklyn on October 21, 1914.

The observations in 1914, comprised, in addition to the magnetic and meterological data, measurements of the potential-gradient, the conductivities for the positive and negative ions, and the radioactive content. Measurements of the ionic numbers were also made during the passage from Greenport, through Long Island Sound to New York. The whole of the observations, with the exception of a few measurements in Long Island Sound by Dr. Swann, were taken by Observer H. F. Johnston.

The average values of the potential-gradient, atmospheric con- ductivity, and radioactive content for the whole cruise were, re- spectively, 93 volts per meter, 2.52 X lO"* E. S. U., and 23, the last number being expressed in Elster and Geitel units. The average value of the earth-air current for the whole cruise was y.y X lO"^ E. S. U. per sq. cm.

The atmospheric-electric elements were measured daily between the hours of 9 A. M. and 12 noon. The observations as far as they go indicate a general increase of the potential-gradient from sum- mer to winter, which is in accord with land observations for the daily mean values. The conductivity also shows a general increase from the beginning of the cruise (June 8, 1914) to about the end of September, when a maximum occurs, after which the conductivity falls.

No marked variation of the atmospheric-electric elements with temperature or humidity was found. However, an indication is shown of a variation of the conductivity with latitude; a maximum for the latitudes involved occurring in the neighborhood of 50° North. These conclusions with regard to the variation of the ele- ments with season, latitude, etc., must be looked upon as tentative owing to the small number of data involved.

The conductivity appears to have an especially low value in the neighborhood of the American coast. In Long Island Sound,


measurements were made of the ionic numbers m+ and n_, and the resuhs indicate that the low values of the conductivity referred to above are to be attributed partly to a low value of the specific velocities of the ions {%\ and v_). The mean values of z\ and v_ for observations on three days in Long Island Sound are respec- tively 0.77 and 0.83 cm./sec. per volt per cm. The average value of 11+ and n_ for observations taken on three days in Long Island Sound are 340 and 280 ions per c.c. respectively.

By making use of the value (23) given above for the radio- active content, and of the empirical relation obtained by Kurz, for the reduction of the Elster and Geitel unit to absolute value, it turns out that the average radioactive content for the whole cruise amounts to about 12 curies of radium emanation per cubic meter as against 80 curies per cubic meter which is about the average value found over land. The emanation content is thus too small to ac- count for the conductivity observed over the sea, which conductiv- ity is as great or greater than that measured over land.

A criticism of the ordinary method of drawing conclusions as to the nature of the radioactive products in the atmosphere, by com- paring the decay curve with one obtained by a wire exposed in a closed vessel, is given in Dr. Swann's report. The activity curves are analyzed in the report mathematically, use being made of the theory of radioactive disintegration, and it is found that while some of the curves can be explained by radium emanation alone, others require the presence of a product of longer decay period than radium A, B or C. The possibility of this extra product being a product of thorium emanation, as is generally assumed to be the case on land, is discussed by Dr. Swann.

An attempt to calculate the actual amount of radium emanation in the air directly from the theory of the Elster and Geitel method, without assuming any empirical relation results in a much smaller value for the radium-emanation content than that given by the empirical relation unless it is assumed that the average specific velocities of the active carriers are much smaller than is generally supposed.




{Read April 23, 1915.)

Although the growing importance of the United States and their extended influence as a world power have made the subject one of prime interest to them in many respects heretofore, there has prob- ably never been a time when the principle of neutrality has had for us in America the same weighty consideration that it has under the existing circumstances in the world today.

Never, probably,